The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

The Nobel Prizein Physiology or Medicine 2014 is awarded for discovering how the brain navigates our way – our inner “GPS” system in the brain. The prize goes to J. O’Keefe (UCL, UK) and E. Moser and M.B. Moser (University of Trondheim, Norway).

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Posted on October 6, 2014, in chemistry in everyday life, innovation, Nobel Prize and tagged . Bookmark the permalink. 5 Comments.

  1. here we mention with medicine that

  2. also we consider and see that are some aspects as say prof dr mircea orasanu and prof horia orasanu for more as specially followed with
    MEDICINE APPLIED AND CHEMISTRY MODEL IN LAGRANGIAN
    ABSTRACT
    Those are the Hamiltonian equations of motion. Instead of a single second-order equation for each coordinate, we have two first-order equations, which may be easier to solve.

    The derivation I gave above was hardly air-tight. However, it’s easy to verify that in Newtonian mechanics using Cartesian coordinates, the Hamiltonian we obtain from equation (h.6) reduces to:
    (h.8)

    which is just the total energy. In that case it’s also easy to verify equations (h.7) directly. As with the Lagrangian formulation, however, much of the value of the Hamiltonian formulation lies in the fact that equations (h.7) are true regardless of the coordinates we’re using. Also keep in mind that equation (h.8) is only necessarily true when the Lagrangian chosen is the “pure Newtonian” T-V. For other Lagrangians, the Hamiltonian won’t necessarily be the total energy of the system.otion

  3. here an important that must mention is as say prof dr mircea orasanu and prof horia orasanu as followed with
    CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINE AND LAGRANGIAN OPERATOR
    ABSTRACT

    To find out the dependence of pressure on equilibrium temperature when two phases coexist.

    Along a phase transition line, the pressure and temperature are not independent of each other, since the system is univariant, that is, only one intensive parameter can be varied independently.When the system is in a state of equilibrium, i.e., thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium, the temperature of the two phases has to be identical, the pressure of the two phases has to be equal and the chemical potential also should be the same in both the phases.
    INTRODUCTION

    Consider a system consisting of a liquid phase at state 1 and a vapour phase at state 1’ in a state of equilibrium. Let the temperature of the system is changed from T1 to T2 along the vaporization curve.

    For
    the phase transition for 1 to 1’:

    or
    or

    In reaching

  4. here we consider and some aspects of the above question as say prof dr . mircea orasanu and prof horia orasanu as followed with
    USING OF ELLIPTICAL METHODS IN MEDICINE AND CHEMISTRY
    ABSTRACT

    The J0 Bessel function
    The equation for J0 Bessel is the zeroth order Bessel equation
    .
    The “standard form” of differential equations is often specified as having the coefficient of the highest order derivative cancelled through. Thus in standard form the equation would be written
    .

    Our procedure for the series solution of this equation is to take the assumed series

    and substitute it into the equation. This involves using the first and second derivatives

    and

    In the expression for the second derivative we have (as in the sine/cosine case above) shifted the dummy summation variable by 2 so that the sum expression contains xn explicitly.

    So far we have left the sum for the first derivative unchanged. The point here is that what the differential equation contains is , and the expression for this must be written as a sum in xn. For this reason we shift the dummy variable in the series for the first derivative by 2:

    so that
    .
    We now substitute the series expressions into the original differential equation:
    .
    The term in the second sum may be treated separately. In that case everything else falls within a sum over n from 0 to .
    .
    As we argued in the previous example, this expression is valid for all values of the independent variable x, so that each power of x must vanish separately.

    Look at the –1 term first. The requirement that this term vanish means that
    .
    Now look at the general case:
    .
    This may be tidied into
    ,
    which gives a recurrence relation for the coefficients:
    .
    We may now build up the coefficients from the term. Starting from we find
    .
    Now putting gives
    1 INTRODUCTION
    The J0(x) function goes to 1 as x goes to 0. This we see on the plot and we have discovered this in the series solution. The Y0(x) function, on the other hand, looks as if it is heading for minus infinity as x goes to 0. That is the problem.

    Recall the point made when we introduced the power series method. A series

    will only work when the function is “well behaved”. This is OK for J0(x), but going off to infinity is an example of “bad behaviour”; then a simple power series won’t work. We will see how to overcome this in a later section.

    The important concepts of this section are:

    • The simple power series method works only for “well-behaved” functions; it cannot cope with “badly-behaved” functions.

    • The basic idea is to substitute the power series into the differential equation.

    • With a slight juggling of the dummy summation variables the equation is cast into the form . Special care must be taken with the first derivative term.

    • Each power of x must equate to zero.

    • The term in x-1 must be treated separately; this tells us that there is no simple series in odd powers of x. The series method is only going to give us one solution to the ODE, which is even in x.

    • Equating the general term in xn to zero gives a recurrence relation for the coefficients.

    • We build up one solution to the ODE from the a0 coefficient.

    • A 2nd order ODE has two independent solutions; where is the other? We recognise that the simple power series method can’t cope with it as it is “badly-behaved”.

    • Properties of the J0 function are obtained from the series solutions and the original ODE.

    Legendre’s equation
    Legendre’s equation follows from separating the laplacian in spherical polar coordinates. This equation arises from the separated equation in the polar angle . Legendre’s equation is
    .
    In this equation n is often a positive integer; we will explore this a little later.

    As before, we start with a power series expression for the function

    Now, however, we will use Mathematica to obtain the recurrence relation for the coefficients. This is outlined in the Mathematica Notebook “Legendre”. The recurrence relation is
    .

  5. here we use some in connection with the above as say prof dr mircea orasanu and prof horia orasanu and as followed with
    METHODS IN MEDICINE AND CHEMISTRY WITH LAGRANGIAN
    ABSTRACT

    The J0 Bessel function
    The equation for J0 Bessel is the zeroth order Bessel equation
    .
    The “standard form” of differential equations is often specified as having the coefficient of the highest order derivative cancelled through. Thus in standard form the equation would be written
    .

    Our procedure for the series solution of this equation is to take the assumed series

    and substitute it into the equation. This involves using the first and second derivatives

    and

    In the expression for the second derivative we have (as in the sine/cosine case above) shifted the dummy summation variable by 2 so that the sum expression contains xn explicitly.

    So far we have left the sum for the first derivative unchanged. The point here is that what the differential equation contains is , and the expression for this must be written as a sum in xn. For this reason we shift the dummy variable in the series for the first derivative by 2:

    so that
    .
    We now substitute the series expressions into the original differential equation:
    .
    The term in the second sum may be treated separately. In that case everything else falls within a sum over n from 0 to .
    1 INTRODUCTION
    So the solution to the ODE which we have discovered is a constant times the J0 Bessel function
    .
    Thus far this is quite good; we have discovered a new function which solves the above differential equation. But it is a second order differential equation and therefore, as with the previous SHO equation, there should be two independent solutions. Where is the other solution?

    When we examined the solution of the wave equation for a drumhead we found the separated radial equation took the form of the zeroth order Bessel equation. And at that stage we simply noted that Mathematica gave, as independent solutions to that equation, the two zeroth order Bessel functions J0(x) and Y0(x). We plotted the functions and the behaviour of the functions in the vicinity of x = 0 gives us an important clue about the “other” solution.

    J0(x) and Y0(x) Bessel functions

    The J0(x) function goes to 1 as x goes to 0. This we see on the plot and we have discovered this in the series solution. The Y0(x) function, on the other hand, looks as if it is heading for minus infinity as x goes to 0. That is the problem.

    Recall the point made when we introduced the power series method. A series

    will only work when the function is “well behaved”. This is OK for J0(x), but going off to infinity is an example of “bad behaviour”; then a simple power series won’t work. We will see how to overcome this in a later section.

    The important concepts of this section are:

    • The simple power series method works only for “well-behaved” functions; it cannot cope with “badly-behaved” functions.

    • The basic idea is to substitute the power series into the differential equation.

    • With a slight juggling of the dummy summation variables the equation is cast into the form . Special care must be taken with the first derivative term.

    • Each power of x must equate to zero.

    • The term in x-1 must be treated separately; this tells us that there is no simple series in odd powers of x. The series method is only going to give us one solution to the ODE, which is even in x.

    • Equating the general term in xn to zero gives a recurrence relation for the coefficients.

    • We build up one solution to the ODE from the a0 coefficient.

    • A 2nd order ODE has two independent solutions; where is the other? We recognise that the simple power series method can’t cope with it as it is “badly-behaved”.

    • Properties of the J0 function are obtained from the series solutions and the original ODE.

    Legendre’s equation
    Legendre’s equation follows from separating the laplacian in spherical polar coordinates. This equation arises from the separated equation in the polar angle . Legendre’s equation is
    .
    In this equation n is often a positive integer; we will explore this a little later.

    As before, we start with a power series expression for the function

    Now, however, we will use Mathematica to obtain the recurrence relation for the coefficients. This is outlined in the Mathematica Notebook “Legendre”. The recurrence relation is
    .

    A series in even powers of x will be built up from a0 and a series in odd powers of x will be built up from odd powers of x. The general solution to the Legendre equation is thus

    where

    Often n is a positive integer. In that case: if n is even then the series for will terminate at the xn term, while if n is odd then the series for will terminate at the xn term. These solutions, normalised to , are called the Legendre polynomials, denoted by . The first few are given by

    They are plotted in the following figure

    First few Legendre polynomials

    When n is an integer one series solution of the Legendre terminates and we thus have the Legendre polynomials The other series solution does not terminate. These are denoted by , and they can be expressed in terms of logarithms:

    They are plotted in the following figure

    First few Legendre Qn functions

    The general solution of the Legendre equation will be
    .
    But note that has a logarithmic divergence at ; the only well-behaved solutions of Legendre’s equation for integer n are the Legendre polynomials

    The important concepts of this section are:

    • Mathematica can be used to derive the coefficient recurrence relation by substituting some general terms of the power series into the differential equation.

    • The recurrence relation connects every other coefficient.

    • Therefore there are two independent solutions, one in the even powers of x and one in the odd powers.

    • For the Legendre equation with integer n the coefficients of one of the series solutions will terminate.

    • If n is even then the series for will terminate at the xn term, while if n is odd then the series for will terminate at the xn term.

    • With appropriate normalisation these are the Legendre polynomials.

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